Outline

1. Introduction

1-1. Purpose of this study

  1-2. Significance of this study

2. Japanese secondary students’ feelings toward learning English

  2-1. The reasons why secondary students study English

  2-2. The reasons why secondary students like English

3. Research Question: What are effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English?

4. Effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English

  4-1. Motivators: what motivates secondary students to study English

  4-2. Demotivators: what demotivates secondary students to study English

  4-3. Effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English

5. Conclusion

  5-1. Summary of this research paper

  5-2. Further research

6. References

Synthesis

Some similarities and common issues can be found in five academic journal articles: Hamada (2011), Gilbert & Ndoubangar (2018), Adnan & Yunus (2018), Espinar & Ortega (2015), and Kikuchi & Sakai (2009). There are two major issues of demotivation to study English.

The first issue is about the definition of motivation and demotivation. Although there are some kinds of definitions of them, motivation can be defined as what makes us do something without being forced, while demotivation can be defined as forces that reduce or lose motivation. For example, according to Espinar & Ortega (2015), “motivation will be understood as what encourages students to freely devote their time to a specific activity” (p. 127). In addition, Hamada (2011) argues that “demotivation should not be interpreted as the opposite of motivation but a certain aspect of motivation. In this sense, demotivation is conceptually different from the phenomenon of no motivation” (p. 16). In this way, comparing the definitions of motivation and demotivation can leads to deeper and better understanding of them respectively.

The second issue is about demotivating factors. There are several demotivators for secondary students. For example, lesson style, textbooks, teachers, reduced self-confidence, and tests demotivate students to study English. As Hamada (2011) states that “teachers focus on teaching Juken Eigo, English for university entrance examination” (p. 29), they stick to traditional teaching styles. That can demotivate students strongly. Regarding lesson style, Kikuchi & Sakai (2009) also mentions a student who complains that the pace of lessons was not appropriate. This is what is call a teacher-centered lesson. Concerning tests, some students claim that “tests are a strong demotivator and put pressure on students because tests seem to be the only indicator of students’ performances” (Hamada, 2011, p. 33). Teachers should explain to students how to evaluate students. In this way, how English lessons are given to students seems to be a big factor of demotivation.

Every student has different motivation or demotivation. This is why it is important for teachers to understand what kinds of motivating and demotivating factors students have. Most of the demotivating factors can be reduced by teachers or their ways of teaching. Teachers have to think about how they teach English to students and what they should do as teachers.

Annotated Bibliography (5)

○Reference

Kikuchi, K. (2009). Japanese Learners’ Demotivation to Study English: A Survey Study. JALT Journal, 31(2), 183-204.

○Summary

The theme of this article is external demotivating factors in English classrooms in high schools in Japan. In this article, the author defines demotivation as “ ‘specific external [italics added] forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioral intention or an ongoing action’ (Dörnyei, 2001a, p. 143)” (Kikuchi, 2009, p. 184). This is Dörnyei’s definition if demotivation, and he follows it. This paper investigates external forces that may cause Japanese high school students to lose motivation. The data of the study were collected through a questionnaire. The participants are 112 learners of English from three private universities in Japan. The results give five factors; course books, inadequate school facilities, test scores, noncommunicative methods, and teachers’ competence and teaching styles.

○Assessment:

This article is very useful because it focuses on and explains external demotivators in English classrooms in Japanese high schools. It also gives a deeper understanding of demotivation. This source is reliable and objective because the external factors that affect demotivation are based on the data from a questionnaire. The participants are learners of English from universities in Japan.

○Reflection:

This article is related to my research topic. If I use this article, I will be able not only to understand what kinds of external demotivators for Japanese high school students are, but also to explore effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English, which is my research question. This is why this article is helpful.

Annotated Bibliography (4)

○Reference

Espinar, R. R. & Ortega, M. J. L. (2015). Motivation: The road to successful learning. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 17(2), 125-136. doi:10.15446/profile.v17n2.50563.

○Summary

The theme of this article is the importance of motivation in the process of learning English as a foreign language. In this article, the authors define motivation as something that is “understood as what encourages students to freely devote their time to a specific activity” (Espinar & Ortega, 2015, p. 127). This paper examines some factors that affect motivation and proposes some guidelines for successful learning and teaching. The data of the study were collected through a questionnaire. The participants are secondary school students. The results give four variables; personal information, students’ interests, English at home, and English in the classroom.

○Assessment:

This article is useful because it explains motivation in detail. For example, it introduces some of the definitions that have been written in previous investigations so that we can take complicated things into consideration. It also proposes some guidelines so that teachers can consider in developing future work. This source is reliable and objective because some factors that affect motivation are based on the data from a questionnaire. The participants are secondary school students.

○Reflection:

This article is related to my research topic. It provides detailed information on motivation, and this enables me to consider motivation from various points of view. If I use this article while comparing others, I will get a better and deeper understanding of motivation. This is why this article will help me to explore effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English, which is my research question.

Annotated Bibliography (3)

○Reference

Adnan, T. & Yunus, T. (2018). Effective Participation and Motivation: An Investigation on Secondary School Students. World Journal of Education, 8(1), 58-74. doi:10.5430/wje.v8n1p58.

○Summary

The theme of this article is effective participation and motivation. In this article, the authors define effective participation as “the degree of active involvement of a student in classroom learning activities,” while they describe motivation as “the energy of individual’s behavior” (Adnan & Yunus, 2018, p. 58). This paper examines the relationship between the secondary school students’ level of effective participation and their motivation. The data of the study were collected through a survey. The participants are 251 secondary school students. The results show that the female secondary school students are more engaged that the male students, while the male students are more disaffected that the female students.

○Assessment:

This article is useful because it explains significance of motivation while associating it with participation. It also mentions what/how teachers should do to have a positive effect on students’ participation and motivation. This source is reliable and objective because this study adopts some scales which indicate objective numerical values. Although this article puts more emphasis on participation than on motivation, it gives us much useful information of motivation.

○Reflection:

This article is related to my research topic. My research question is “What are effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English?” so it is necessary for me to know not only about students’ motivation but also about their participation. This article provides the relationship between the secondary school students’ level of effective participation and their motivation, and it will help me to find the answer to my research question.

Annotated Bibliography (2)

○Reference

Gilbert, T. S. & Ndoubangar, T. (2018). Attitudes and Motivation of Chadian Learners of English. World Journal of Education, 8(2), 174-180. doi:10.5430/wje.v8n2p174.

○Summary

The theme of this article is attitudes and motivation of learners of English. Attitudes towards a language may have an effect on second or foreign language learning. On the other hand, motivation is often regarded as one of the important elements which influence the rate of success of second or foreign language learning. This paper investigates learners’ attitudes and motivation towards the learning of English. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The participants are Chadian secondary / high school and university students. The results show that learning English for communication and for traveling purposes is quite significant.

○Assessment:

This article is useful because it shows the subjects’ attitudes towards English and the various reasons why they learn it. Also, it compares male secondary / high school learners with female secondary / high school learners. This source is reliable and objective because the attitudes and the motivation for English are based on the data from the questionnaires. The participants for the study were 190 secondary / high school learners and 70 university students.

○Reflection:

This article is related to my research topic. In learning English as a second or foreign language, it is important for students to have high motivation and positive attitude towards the language. And this article provides what kinds of attitudes and motivations students regard as important. This will be useful for exploring effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English, which is my research question.

Week 20: Annotated Bibliography (1)

○Reference

Hamada, Y. (2011). Different demotivators for Japanese junior high and high school learners. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 15-38.

○Summary

This study aims to clarify the differences between junior high school and high school learners in Japan in relation to demotivation, and to provide a deeper and better understanding of demotivation for Japanese junior and senior high school learners of English.

The results of this study show that Nature of English is more demotivating for junior high school learners while Lesson style and Teachers are more demotivating for high school learners. Among junior high school learners, Tests, Nature of English, and Reduced self-confidence are more demotivating than other factors. On the other hand, among high school learners, Reduced self-confidence, Lesson style, and Textbooks are more demotivating than other factors.

○Assessment:

This article is useful because it clarifies demotivators for junior high school learners and high school learners in Japan. Also, it gives me a better and deeper understanding of demotivation for Japanese junior high school and high school learners of English. This source is reliable and objective because the demotivators and the reasons of them are based on the data from the questionnaires and interviews. The participants for the study were 234 first year Japanese students from two public high schools in northern Japan, and 217 freshmen from two universities in the Kanto region of Japan.

○Reflection:

This article is related to my research topic. To explore effective ways to motivate secondary students to study English, which is my research question, it is necessary for me to know what motivates and demotivates them to study it. This article has the data from Japanese secondary students. The data are what I need, and this journal article will help me to find the answer to my research question.

Lesson 19: A List of Sources

1. Effective Participation and Motivation: An Investigation on Secondary School Students

Tasgin, Adnan; Tunc, Yunus

World Journal of Education, v8 n1 p58-74 2018

2. Attitudes and Motivation of Chadian Learners of English

Safotso, Gilbert Tagne; Tompte, Ndoubangar

World Journal of Education, v8 n2 p174-180 2018

3. Motivation: The Road to Successful Learning (La motivación: el camino para un aprendizaje exitoso)

Espinar Redondo, Rocío; Ortega Martín, José Luis

PROFILE: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, v17 n2 p125-136 Jul-Dec 2015

4. Different Demotivators for Japanese Junior High and High School Learners

Hamada, Yo

Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, v15 n1 p15-38 2011

5. Turkish High School Students’ English Demotivation and Their Seeking for Remotivation: A Mixed Method Research

Akay, Cenk

English Language Teaching, v10 n8 p107-122 2017

The Reason I Choose the Research Topic

My research topic is “What motivates and demotivates students to study English.” I choose this as my research topic because of my high school classmates’ talks and my experience.

When I was a high school student, I had some classmates who liked English when they were elementary or junior high school students but did not like it when they were high school students. When I heard their talks, I was sorry for them. If they had liked English, they would have been able to study English with positive feelings.

There are many kinds of reasons why we study English. My main reason why I study English is that I love English. English is interesting to me. I have come to like English thanks to my English teacher. When I was a first-year junior high school student, I met an English teacher, and she taught me very clearly. Now, I have some questions. How can students who do not like English have the feelings of love for English? Then, how can they connect them to the motivation to study it?

I have other questions. Why do students who liked English when they were in junior high school, come to dislike English and lose the motivation to study it when they are in high school? In contrast, why do students who did not like English when they were in elementary or junior high school, come to like it when they are in high school?

Fortunately, I fell in love with English when I was a junior high school student, and I still loved it when I was a high school student. That is why I have no conception of such students’ feelings. As teachers who teach English to students, it is essential for us to understand how such students feel. This is the reason why I choose this research topic.